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All About Interventional Radiology

Mar 29, 2017

All About Interventional Radiology

Interventional radiology (IR), occasionally called vascular and interventional radiology (VIR), is a sub-specialty in the medical field that renders image-assisted minimally invasive diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Some of the different types of catheters used in IR are Central venous catheters, Micro catheters, Diagnostic angiographic catheters, Drainage catheters, Balloon catheters, etc.

Common IR Treatment/Procedures

Some of the common IR procedures include Angiography, Balloon angioplasty/stent, Drain insertions, Radioembolization, Thrombolysis, Radiofrequency ablation (RF/RFA), Cryoablation, Chemoembolization, Central venous catheter placement (PIC lines etc.), Endovenous laser treatment of varicose veins, Cholecystostomy, Endovascular aneurysm repair, Embolization, Microwave ablation, Vertebroplasty, Placement of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-systemic Shunt (TIPS), Radiologically inserted gastrostomy(RIG), Nephrostomy placement, etc.

Disorders In Which IR Plays An Important Role For Diagnosis And Treatment

  • Vascular diseases like abdominal aortic aneurysms  peripheral artery disease, Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), Pulmonary embolism, Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) and Aortic dissection Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), Acute mesenteric ischemia, Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), Acute limb ischemia, Varicose veins, IVC filter placement, Aneurysms of visceral arteries etc.
  • Cancers
  • Neurological disease like stroke, AV malformation, carotid artery stenosis, multiple Sclerosis, spinal fractures, Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty,
  • Pelvic and gastro ailments like Portal hypertension, Bile Duct Obstruction, Pelvic congestion syndrome , Gastric varices, Gastrostomy tube placement
  • Renal ailments like Renal artery stenosis, Renal failure/Dialysis catheter placement, Nephrostomy tube , Dialysis fistula/Arterio-venous graft failure placement, Renal Sympathetic Denervation
  • Pediatric interventions
  • Uterine fibroids, male and female infertility

Latest Developments In The Field Of Interventional Radiology

Siemens recently has highlighted an innovative technology called syngo CTO Guidance, which is a software application that combines CT with fluoroscopy to help treatment of complex coronary total occlusions. This technology could potentially result in better outcomes using decreased levels of contrast and radiation. Another new imaging innovation from Siemens is Compressed Sensing Cardiac Cine, which increases the acquisition of magnetic resonance  images by more than 10 times. This will help the doctors to image the entire left ventricle in just one breath-hold for quick evaluation of wall abnormalities caused by coronary artery stenosis. 

Disclaimer: The information given in this write-up is purely for educating the reader. It is not meant to be a substitute for any advice from a medical expert.

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