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Various Symptoms of HIV and AIDS

Apr 07, 2017

Various Symptoms of HIV and AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a medical disorder caused by infection with Human immunodeficiency virus infection and (HIV).  The disease is characterized by CD4+ T cell count less than 200 cells per µL.

HIV/AIDS symptomatology

Following the infection with HIV, there is an acute retroviral syndrome in 40-90% of the cases for 1 or 2 weeks which consist of influenza-like illness- fever, enlarged lymph nodes with tenderness, throat inflammation. In 20-50% of the cases there comes a maculopapular rash on the trunk. Gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or neurological symptoms like peripheral neuropathy or Guillain Barre Syndrome may occur. The initial symptoms are followed by a stage of clinical latency or asymptomatic phase which lasts for about 3 years to 20 years (average of 8 years). During the end of the stage few people may experience symptoms like fever, weight loss, muscle pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, and lymphadenopathy. The symptoms may persist over 3-6 months. Principal symptoms of AIDS would be pneumocystis pneumonia, respiratory tract infectionscachexia, and esophageal candidiasis. Opportunistic infections by bacteriaparasites, viruses and fungi affect every organ system. Cancers like including Kaposi's sarcomaprimary central nervous system lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma,  and cervical cancer may occur.

The US CDC classification system for HIV

  • Stage 0: the time between a negative HIV test and a positive test between a span of 180 days.
  • Stage 1: CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/µl and no AIDS symptoms
  • Stage 2: CD4 count 200- 500 cells/µl and no AIDS symptoms
  • Stage 3: CD4 count ≤ 200 cells/µl or AIDS symptoms

Causes & Transmission

Transmission of infection occurs through- blood transfusion(90% chance of infection), child birth(25% chance of infection to child), needle sharing during injection of drugs (0.67%), percutaneous  needle stick injury (0.30%), anal intercourse (0.03-3%), vaginal intercourse (0.01-0.38%), oral intercourse (0-0.4%),

Latest Research

British scientists from universities of Cambridge, Oxford, Imperial College London, King's College London, University College London and are on the verge of developing a cure for HIV/AIDS.

Disclaimer: The information given in this write-up is purely for educating the reader. It is not meant to be a substitute for any advice from a medical expert.

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